Federico Chiesa’s goal 11 seconds into the second half condemned Chelsea to a Champions League defeat in Turin.
Federico Bernardeschi beautifully controlled the ball with his chest and played it in behind Thiago Silva towards Chiesa, who blasted past keeper Edouard Mendy and into the roof of the net before Antonio Rudiger was able to close him down.
The goal galvanised Juve, who were second best in the opening 45 minutes as Chelsea dominated possession.
Blues boss Thomas Tuchel, who brought Ben Chilwell on for Marcos Alonso at half-time, responded to the game slipping away from his team by making a triple substitution just after the hour mark.
Callum Hudson-Odoi, Ruben Loftus-Cheek and Trevor Chalobah were sent on in place of Hakim Ziyech, Jorginho and Cesar Azpilicueta.
But the hosts continued to have the upper hand and Bernardeschi should have made it 2-0 but contrived to scoop the ball over from close range after being set up by former Chelsea man Juan Cuadrado.
Chelsea, without the injured Mason Mount as well as N’Golo Kante, who this week tested positive for Covid-19, struggled to create clear-cut chances until late in the game and Romelu Lukaku was isolated up front.
Hudson-Odoi did create an opportunity for Lukaku but his 74th-minute cross was headed wide by the striker.
Lukaku missed a big chance with seven minutes remaining when he turned in the box and fired over after collecting Ross Barkley’s pass.
And Kai Havertz missed a golden opportunity to equalise in the final seconds when he headed over from close range.
The result leaves the Italian side two points clear of second-placed Chelsea in Group H after two matches.
Chelsea: Mendy, Azpilicueta, Christensen (Barkley 75), Silva, Rudiger, Alonso (Chilwell 45), Jorginho, Kovacic, Havertz, Ziyech, Lukaku.
Subs not used: Kepa, Werner, Bettinelli, Saul, Sarr.